ponedeljek, 18. januar 2010

Predzgodovina katastrofe na Haitiju

Ko gledamo posnetke opustošenja, ki ga je rušilni potres pustil na Haitiju, se verjetno vsi sprašujemo, kaj se je v preteklosti dogajalo s to majhno državo, da v njej danes vladata takšna revščina in kaos? Vsaj delni odgovor na to vprašanje lahko najdemo v knjigi Petra Hallwarda Damming the Flood: Haiti, Aristide and the Politics of Containment, oziroma v lažje dostopni recenziji in povzetku  knjige, ki jo je lani napisal Slavoj Žižek za New Statesman: Democracy versus the people. Tule navajam le kratek odlomek:
Haiti was an exception from the very beginning, from its revolutionary fight against slavery, which ended in independence in January 1804. "Only in Haiti," Hallward notes, "was the declaration of human freedom universally consistent. Only in Haiti was this declaration sustained at all costs, in direct opposition to the social order and economic logic of the day." For this reason, "there is no single event in the whole of modern history whose implications were more threatening to the dominant global order of things". The Haitian Revolution truly deserves the title of repetition of the French Revolution: led by Toussaint 'Ouverture, it was clearly "ahead of his time", "premature" and doomed to fail, yet, precisely as such, it was perhaps even more of an event than the French Revolution itself. It was the first time that an enslaved population rebelled not as a way of returning to their pre-colonial "roots", but on behalf of universal principles of freedom and equality.
/.../
Haiti thus had to be made an exemplary case of economic failure, to dissuade other countries from taking the same path. The price - the literal price - for the "premature" independence was truly extortionate: after two decades of embargo, France, the old colonial master, established trade and diplomatic relations only in 1825, after forcing the Haitian government to pay 150 million francs as "compensation" for the loss of its slaves. This sum, roughly equal to the French annual budget at the time, was later reduced to 90 million, but it continued to be a heavy drain on Haitian resources: at the end of the 19th century, Haiti's payments to France consumed roughly 80 per cent of the national budget, and the last instalment was only paid in 1947. When, in 2003, in anticipation of the bicentenary of national independence, the Lavalas president Jean-Baptiste Aristide demanded that France return this extorted money ... /.../
The story goes on today. The Lavalas movement has won every free presidential election since 1990, but it has twice been the victim of US-sponsored military coups.
Še povezava na nedavni Hallwardov sestavek o potresu in Haitiju v Guardianu: Our Role in Haiti’s Plight.

3 komentarji:

  1. Toussaint L'Ouverture je gledano za nazaj ena najpomembnejših osebnosti Francoske revolucije, čisto na ravni Robespierra in ostalih največjih revolucionarjev.
    Človek je vzel emancipatorna gesla revolucije zares in začel prvi moderni protisuženjski in protikolonialni boj. (Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toussaint_Louverture )

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  2. Nekaj naslovov, kjer lahko prispevate za pomoč Haitiju:
    Rdeči križ
    Unicef
    Karitas
    Seznam tujih naslovov.

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  3. Iz kolumne Tomaža Mastnaka v Dnevniku:

    "In kaj je bilo medijsko sporočilo? Bili sta, in še vedno sta, dve glavni sporočili. Prvo je dobrota, altruizem, radodarnost in požrtvovalnost zahodnih humanitarcev, začenši z ameriško vojsko. Drugo je divjaštvo domorodcev.
    Prvo sporočilo se je med drugim hranilo z zgodbami o morda 150 rešenih iz ruševin, ne s tisoči in desettisoči, ki so ostali zakopani, ne z nepreštetimi mrtvimi. Rešitve so imenovali "čudežne". Reševalci iz civiliziranega sveta so delali čudeže. To je jezik verske misije, ki krepi in utrjuje našo vero v nas same. Naši reševalci so odrešeniki nesrečnih tega sveta. Nesrečo drugih imamo radi, da lahko imamo radi same sebe. Bolj ko je ozadje grdo, bolj smo si lahko všeč, bolj samovšečni stojimo v ospredju.
    /.../ Jefferson je haitske vstajnike proti suženjstvu imenoval ljudožerce. Danes je naša središčna svetinja lastnina, privatna lastnina, zato je lik domorodskega izgrednika skrunilec zasebne lastnine. /.../ Poglejte, taki so. Ropajo in kradejo, okoriščajo se z nesrečo, ne spoštujejo zakonov. Mi, ki smo jim prišli pomagat, smo si zato lahko še bolj všeč. Obenem pa imamo razlago za to, zakaj oni živijo v taki mizeriji. Saj ne more biti drugače, takšni, kot so... Sami so si krivi."

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