četrtek, 16. oktober 2014

Carl Sagan o izjemnem družbenem pomenu (tudi navidez nekoristnih) znanstvenih raziskav

Carl Sagan na kongresnem zaslišanju poslušalce vpraša, kaj bi storili, če bi bili znanstveni svetovalci kraljice Viktorije in bi jim ta okoli leta 1850 naročila, da ji zgradijo škatlo, s pomočjo katere bi lahko ljudje gledali njene govore kar od doma s kavča. Tudi če bi zbrali vse največje strokovnjake tiste dobe in bi imeli neomejena sredstva, niti z največjimi napori ne bi mogli izdelati nič delujočega. Je pa nek malo znani škotski znanstvenik prav takrat...

nedelja, 12. oktober 2014

Nujno preberite!

Odkril sem eno največjih prevar zadnjih stoletij. Zemlja sploh ni krogla, kot nas že nekaj časa prepričujejo, ampak je povsem ploščata. Če si dobro ogledate slike iz vesolja vam bo to nedvomno hitro jasno, saj je povsem jasno razvidno iz slik, da ni v obliki krogle, ampak je ravna površina, res pa je okrogle oblike (je okrogla plošča). Več kot očitno nas znanstveniki že stoletja varajo in držijo v temi.  Z antropozoomorfno resonančno visokofrekvenčno ekvidistančno anizotropijo sem tudi ugotovil, da magnetno polje na zemlji deluje tako, da vse navigacijske naprave vedno zavede, da vsa prevozna sredstva (ladje, letala) potujejo v krogu in tako lahko obplujejo celine, čeprav so vedno na ravni površini, potujoči na njih pa imajo občutek, da gredo okrog krogle. Vem, da je to šokantno za vse, ki to berete in da znanstveniki ne bodo tega verjeli, ampak to je samo zaradi tega ker so starokopitni, egoistični, zaverovani samo v svojo znanost in niso sposobni pogledati izven konteksta. Poleg tega so vsi znanstveniki, ki trdijo, da je zemlja krogla, podkupljeni s strani NATA, Monsanta in farmacevtske industrije, in vam zato ne smejo izdati tega, čeprav nekateri od njih zelo dobro vedo resnico, da zemlja ni krogla temveč je ploščata. Zakaj to skrivajo? Ker je to del velikega načrta, kako zmanjšati svetovno populacijo. Letalo Malezijske letalske družbe MH 370 sploh ni izginilo v Indijskem oceanu, kot nas skušajo prepričati, temveč so ga namerno poslali preko roba zemlje in je skupaj s potniki padlo čez rob. To je bil samo prvi poskus, zdaj se bodo začele takšne nesreče z letali in ladjami križarkami, polnimi ljudi, dogajati vse pogosteje.  Znanstveniki, ki jih plačujejo NATO, Monsanto in svetovna farmacevtska podjetja (za njimi pa stojijo Rockefellerji, Bilderbergi in Medičejci) so namreč odkrili način, kako z evharistično kontekstualno epigenetsko ortologijo zavesti navigacijske naprave, tako da letala ali ladje odpeljejo preko roba zemlje in izginejo. Na ta način bodo prej omenjeni začeli zmanjševati svetovno populacijo, zato vam vsem svetujem, da do nadaljnjega prenehate potovati z ladjami ali letali, ker ste resnično v veliki nevarnosti. Prosim, delite to sporočilo naprej, saj se bomo le tako, če nas bo dovolj veliko število spregledalo in začelo verjeti to absolutno resnico, lahko uprli Rockefellerjem, Bilderbergom in Medičejcem in jih premagali.

petek, 10. oktober 2014

Sredstva za znanost se zmanjšujejo s hitrostjo 40 tisočakov na dan!

Na Valu 202 je bila danes odlična oddaja novinarke Maje Ratej z naslovom: Kako odlična je slovenska znanost? – Val 202. Krajši posnetek dela oddaje lahko poslušate tudi na povezavi spodaj!
Slovenija je lani za raziskovalno-razvojno dejavnost namenila 175 milijonov evrov, kar predstavlja 0,48 odstotka slovenskega bruto domačega proizvoda, to je za 8 odstotkov ali 15 milijonov evrov manj kot leto prej. Če preračunamo v dneve, pomeni, da smo za raziskovalno-razvojno dejavnost lani na dan izgubili več kot 40 tisočakov! O razmerah v slovenski znanosti in odnosu slovenske družbe do nje se je Maja Ratej pogovarjala s štirimi sogovorniki: državnim sekretarjem na Ministrstvu za izobraževanje, znanost in šport dr. Petrom Mačkom, predsednikom Slovenske akademije znanosti in umetnosti dr. Tadejem Bajdom, direktorjem Kemijskega inštituta dr. Jankom Jamnikom in raziskovalcem iz gospodarstva dr. Jernejem Zupancem.

četrtek, 09. oktober 2014

Informirana voda in znanstvena skepsa

Na kratko bi rad komentiral bizarni Polnočni klub (več o tem je bilo nedavno zapisano na prav tem blogu), ki se je ukvarjal z informiranostjo vode, orgonskimi topovi in še marsičem.

Najprej moram v tem kontekstu zapisati, da mi je simpatična BBC-jeva definicija uravnoteženosti javnega TV  programa: uravnoteženost ne pomeni, da zagovorniki informiranosti vode dobijo prav toliko časa v etru kot tisti, ki menimo nasprotno. Uravnoteženost pomeni, da je "air-time" tistih, ki verjamejo v informiranje vode, sorazmeren deležu vseh znanstvenikov, ki verjamejo v informiranje vode. Nekoliko na pamet bi to pomenilo, da na 999 oddaj, ki predstavljajo nesporno znanstvene teme, pač v duhu politične korektnosti posnamejo še eno, ki se ukvarja s HAARP, kondenzacijskimi sledmi, orgonskimi topovi, informiranostjo vode, itd. Upam, da se nisem preveč zmotil pri oceni, da so tovrstna prepričanja prisotna zgolj pri kaki desetinki odstotka znanstvenikov. Fair enough?

Nadalje bi se dotaknil nekega stališča, ki znanstvenikom neprestano očita, da so starokopitni, konzervativni, ter da niso pripravljeni sprejeti novih dognanj, ker ta nasprotujejo njihovi partikularni znanstveni doksi - tokrat denimo dognanja o informiranosti vode. To stališče predstavlja krasno projekcijo lastnosti obtoževalcev na obtožene. Vprašajmo se namreč, kdo je pravzaprav tisti, ki ni pripravljen spremeniti mnenja in trdovratno vztraja pri svojem?

Znanstveniki nasploh nimajo prav nobenih težav z revizijo lastnih stališč, ČE je ta revizija upravičena na podlagi znanstvene metodologije. Ko poskusi ponovljivo dokažejo neko novost, je ta nato vključena v odslejšnjo znanstveno vednosti. PREJ PA NE. Recept za znanstveno pripoznanje o informiranosti vode je zato povsem enostaven: ta hipoteza mora biti konsistentno in trajno ponovljiva ob številnih neodvisnih preverbah. To je tisti minimalni pogoj, ki ga znanstveniki zahtevajo za revizijo svojih znanosti. Če temu pogoju ni zadoščeno, jih je popolnoma deplasirano označevati za konzervativce in tradicionaliste.

Kdor misli, da je informiranost vode preveč eksotična, da bi jo bili starokopitni znanstveni umi pripravljeni požreti, je pač preskočil stoletje kvantne mehanike, ki postreže z bistveno bolj vratolomnimi koncepti! Ampak ti koncepti so bili nato neštetokrat preverjeni - včasih tudi na enajst (11) decimalnih mest natančno. Znanstveniki so zato te koncepte sprejeli za svoje, ker druge izbire takorekoč ni bilo.

Raziskovalci informiranosti vode po mojem najboljšem vedenju niso zadostili pogoju večkratne neodvisne ponovljivosti svojih trditev. In vendar KLJUB TEMU vztrajajo pri svojem. Kdo je torej tu starokopiten? Kdo je tu dogmatičen? Kdo ni fleksibilen?

Znanstveniki so verjetno najbolj fleksibilna publika na planetu. To ne pomeni, da vse spremembe takoj sprejmejo, ampak da bodo ob ustreznih novih dejstvih vendarle razmeroma hitro spremenili stališče, če to ne bo ustrezalo poskusom. Kriteriji sprejetja teorije so jasni, le doseči jih je treba. Znanstvenikom je zato povsem nesmiselno očitati skepso - kdor znanstvenikom očita skepso, ne razume temeljnega dispozitiva znanosti. Skepsa je neločljivi del znanosti, vendar ta skepsa ni neomejena - učinkovito jo razblinijo, še enkrat, neodvisno ponovljivi in ponovljeni poskusi.

Pravila so torej jasna, le igrati je treba po njih. Je pa res, da utegnejo voditi do rezultatov, ki nam ne bodo všeč. In če se to zgodi, si je treba priznati, da z našo delovno hipotezo nekaj ni bilo v redu. Lahko pa še naprej trdimo svoje, ampak to potem ni več problem zagovednosti znanstvene skupnosti.






Odkritelj ebole: "it is what people call a perfect storm"

Nekaj odlomkov iz izjemno zanimivega intervjuja z odkriteljem virusa ebole: Interview with Peter Piot Discoverer of the Ebola Virus - SPIEGEL ONLINE
One day in September, a pilot from Sabena Airlines brought us a shiny blue thermos and a letter from a doctor in Kinshasa in what was then Zaire. In the thermos, he wrote, there was a blood sample from a Belgian nun who had recently fallen ill from a mysterious sickness in Yambuku, a remote village in the northern part of the country. He asked us to test the sample for yellow fever. ... We just wore our white lab coats and protective gloves. When we opened the thermos, the ice inside had largely melted and one of the vials had broken. Blood and glass shards were floating in the ice water. ...

When we were just about able to begin examining the virus under an electron microscope, the World Health Organization instructed us to send all of our samples to a high security lab in England. But my boss at the time wanted to bring our work to conclusion no matter what. He grabbed a vial containing virus material to examine it, but his hand was shaking and he dropped it on a colleague's foot! The vial shattered. My only thought was: "Oh shit!" ...

When the Belgian government decided to send someone, I volunteered immediately. I was 27 and felt a bit like my childhood hero Tintin. And I have to admit, I was intoxicated by the chance to track down something totally new. ... Of course it was clear to us that we were dealing with one of the deadliest infectious diseases the world had ever seen -- and we had no idea that it was transmitted via bodily fluids! It could also have been mosquitoes. We wore protective suits and latex gloves and I even borrowed a pair of motorcycle goggles to cover my eyes. ...

In their hospital, they regularly gave pregnant women vitamin injections using unsterilized needles. By doing so, they infected many young women in Yambuku with the Ebola virus. We told the nuns about the terrible mistake they had made, but looking back I would say that we were much too careful in our choice of words. Clinics that failed to observe this and other rules of hygiene functioned as catalysts in all additional Ebola outbreaks. ...

I think it is what people call a perfect storm: when every individual circumstance is a bit worse than normal and they then combine to create a disaster. And with this epidemic, there were many factors that were disadvantageous from the very beginning. Some of the countries involved were just emerging from terrible civil wars, many of their doctors had fled and their healthcare systems had collapsed. ...

Of course we are a long way away from declaring victory over bacteria and viruses. HIV is still here; in London alone, five gay men become infected daily. An increasing number of bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics. And I can still see the Ebola patients in Yambuku how they died in their shacks and we couldn't do anything except let them die. In principle, it's still the same today. That is very depressing. But it also provides me with a strong motivation to do something. I love life. And that is why I am doing everything I can to convince the powerful in this world to finally send sufficient help to West Africa. Now!

Dodatek: Ebola: how did a Spanish nurse become infected with virus in high containment unit?
Let’s get two things straight: This virus is highly infectious - we only need a very small number of virus particles, maybe as few as one, to initiate an infection. But, unlike measles, the virus isn’t very contagious. In other words, it doesn’t spread from person to person very easily. On the scale used to measure how likely a virus is to transmit: for every 10 people infected with Ebola they will pass their virus on to a further 17 people. These figures are relatively modest, but the rate of transmission is still high enough to produce the exponential growth in cases that we are seeing in Western Africa today, and why some think that the number of cases might eventually grow to more than 1.5 million.

torek, 07. oktober 2014

Informirani doktorat na nacionalni TV

V oddaji RTV SLO 1, Polnočni klub z naslovom Skoraj izbrisani, ki je bila na sporedu 3. oktobra 2014, smo bili priča obilni promociji psevdoznanosti oziroma patološke znanosti.

Prof. Peter Bukovec iz Fakultete za kemijo in kemijsko tehnologijo UL nastopi okoli 31:00, sledi zgodba z doktoratom NV, okoli 60-te minute pa še razlaga Kirlianove kamere. Vmes nastopi tudi g. Vili Poznik s promocijo učinkovitosti – zmožnosti “orgonskih topov v malem” – svinčniki v katere se zapiše moč vesolja. Tudi eksperiment s sirom in nihalom je zanimiv, sir ob kontaktu s črtno kodo postane slab sir, a g. Poznik ga v studiu spremeni nazaj v dobrega. Na trenutke se zdi, da gledamo novo epizodo dogodivščin Harryja Potterja.

Prof. dr. Bukovec sicer pove, da nastopa v vlogi dvojnega agenta oziroma pod dvema klobukoma in sicer enkrat nosi klobuk profesorja drugič pa integrativni klobuk. Kdaj ima katerega na glavi ni povsem razvidno, saj njegov profesorski klobuk pokriva patološko znanost. V oddaji se namreč sklicuje na pojava kot sta spomin vode od Benveniste in pojav polimerne vode od Lippincota, ki sta oba že dolgo klasificirana kot znana primera pseudo znanosti na področju naravoslovja. Skozi promocijo knjige G. Pollacka “The fourth phase of water” pojasni tudi delovanje vodne baterije (perpetum mobile), ki jo je inovativni avtor v Ameriki tudi patentiral. Zelo zanimiva je tudi njegova izjava, da imamo klasični znanstveniki prevelik ego in strah do novih spoznanj, zato se po njegovem mnenju klasična znanost novostim upira.

Veliko ljudi verjame v Harryja Potterja, duhove in angelčke pa jih to vseeno ne naredi resnične! Vsak ima pravico, da verjame v karkoli že, vendar znanstvena potrditev zahteva ponovljivo, kritično in argumentirano raziskavo, ki je neodvisna od verovanja posameznika, pri tem je žal tudi prof. dr. Petru Bukovcu spodrsnilo. Ne glede na to, kateri klobuk je imel na glavi, je pokrival isto glavo. Še več kot profesor FKKT UL potrjuje učinkovitost delovanja »informiranih izdelkov« g. Poznika.

Mislim, da je bilo v javnost posredovano hudo zavajajoče sporočilo, ki ga je treba nujno in kar najhitreje korigirati. Posebno zaskrbljujoča je oznaka egoistov za »klasične« znanstvenike, ki se po njegovem mnenju upirajo (upiramo) novostim.

ponedeljek, 06. oktober 2014

Nobelova nagrada za fiziologijo ali medicino 2014

Dobitniki nobelove nagrade za fiziologijo ali medicine 2014 so John O'Keefe (1/2) in zakonski par May-Britt Moser in Edvard I. Moser (1/2) za odkritje celic, ki tvorijo sistem prostorskega pozicioniranja v možganih. Prav neverjetno je, da ima Nature o paru Moser in njunem delu že objavljen daljši članek Neuroscience: Brains of Norway. Vredno branja.

O zasebnem življenju:

The Mosers grew up on different Norwegian islands in the North Atlantic, where summer days seem eternal and the long winter nights are brightened only by the dancing Northern Lights. They were both from non-academic families and they went to the same school. But they didn't get to know each other until 1983, when both were at the University of Oslo, both were wondering what to study and both were starting to realize that their true passion was for neuroscience and the brain. 
Suddenly, everything sparked: romance between the two of them, intellectual curiosity and the beginnings of their mission in life — to find out how the brain generates behaviour. The Mosers visited one of the university's more famous faculty members, electrophysiologist Per Andersen, and asked to do their undergraduate projects with him. Andersen was studying the activity of neurons in the hippocampus — a brain area associated with memory — and the two students wanted to try to link this precise activity of cells with the behaviour of animals. Andersen, like most neuroscientists at the time, was sceptical about making such a big leap across the black box of the brain. But the pair wouldn't leave his office until he gave in and offered them an apparently simple project: how much of the hippocampus could you cut away before a rat could no longer remember new environments? 
The pair had decided how their joint lives should be: children early, postdoc experience abroad and then their own lab together, somewhere in the world. These plans panned out — just a little faster than they had anticipated. Even before defending their PhDs, they accepted side-by-side postdocs in O’Keefe’s lab in London. 
But in 1996, just a few months into their postdocs, the Mosers received a surprise offer of two associate professorships at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. They weren't sure about accepting: it would mean striking out alone, in a small university in a country isolated from the world's major centres of research. “But the offer of two posts in the same place and in the same research area was too good to turn down,” Edvard says. They flew back home, by this time trailing a toddler and baby.
It wasn't easy to get established in Trondheim. They had to build a lab from scratch in a small basement, and establish an animal facility too. But only a few years in, they were winning big grants from the European Commission and the Research Council of Norway. And by then, the results were coming through.

In o njunem delu
It took some months before it dawned on them that they needed the rats to run around bigger boxes, so that the pattern would be stretched out and easier to see. At that point, it came into view: a near-perfect hexagon lattice, like a honeycomb. At first they refused to believe it. Such simplicity and regularity was the last thing they had expected — biology is usually a lot messier than this. But one by one, the pair ruled out all other explanations — that the pattern was an artefact from their electronic equipment, for example — and then they began to understand how this part of the brain was working. There were no physical hexagons traced on the floor; the shapes were abstractly created in the rat's brain and imposed on its environment, such that a single neuron fired whenever it crossed one of the points of the hexagon. The discovery was exciting for more than its pleasing pattern. This representation of space in brain-language was one of the long-sought codes by which the brain represents the world around us. “It was a long-drawn-out eureka moment,” recalls Edvard. The team published the discovery in Nature3 in 2005.